How Are Laws Made / Legislation Passed The bills that were carried over from last year’s calendar can be reassigned. The bills that made it through committee last year are still alive until disposed of this session. Either the bills die or they go back through the sub-committee process and are placed on the debate calendar for debate action. Usually 5 to 6 weeks into the session, there will be a funnel date, if a bill is not out of sub committee it is dead for the session. The one exception is an appropriations bill. A quick history on how legislation takes place. Bills are suggested by constituents, committees, leadership, and outside groups. Once bills are drafted they get assigned to a committee, the committee chair then assigns the bill to a sub-committee, and the sub-committee chair will be the floor manager of the bill. When a sub-committee meeting is held, people who have an interest in the bill are allowed to testify or speak on the bill. If the bill passes the sub-committee it then goes on to a full committee, in which the committee will debate the bill with no outside input. If it passes a full committee it will then be eligible for a floor debate. Many bills that are drafted never get to see the debate calendar. The bills that do make it and are passed on the floor of House and Senate, if signed by the governor it becomes part of the Iowa Code.